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GU-Q: How to Cite

Use this guide to find out how you can easily collect and manage citation information

How to Cite in the Text?

In-text citations for books, articles and other formats

For citing in the text use the author-date format, for example:

According to Smith (1999) ....

it has been proven ... (Smith, 1999)

How Should I Cite This?


Author, A. A. (Year). Title: Subtitle. Location: Publisher.


Malcolm, J. (1980). Psychoanalysis: The impossible profession. New York, NY: Vintage Books.


Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title. Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.


Coudounaris, D. N., & Sthapit, E. (2017). Antecedents of memorable tourism experience related to behavioral intentions. Psychology & Marketing, 34(12), 1084-1093.


Online documents can take various forms; here we focus on a webpage:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Publication date). Title of webpage. In Title of website. Retrieved from


The World Bank Group. (2018). What we do. In The World Bank. Retrieved from

To check out how to cite other online information sources, visti the Purdue OWL Electronic Sources section

A primary source can take various forms; it could be an image, a video or manuscript. For each form you need to follow different rules in order to cite it. Check out Purdue OWL Non-Print Sources to find out more.