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How to Cite in the Text?

In-text citations for books, articles, and other formats

For citing in the text, use the author-date format, for example:

According to Smith (1999) ....

It has been proven ... (Smith, 1999)

How Should I Reference This?


Surname, A. A. (Year). Book Title in Italics: Subtitle in Italics. Publisher.


Malcolm, J. (1980). Psychoanalysis: The impossible profession. Vintage Books.


Surname, A. A., Surname, B. B., & Surname, C. C. (Year). Article title. Periodical Title in Italics, volume number(issue number), pages. DOI


Coudounaris, D. N., & Sthapit, E. (2017). Antecedents of memorable tourism experience related to behavioral intentions. Psychology & Marketing, 34(12), 1084-1093.


Online documents can take various forms; here is an example of a webpage:

Surname, A. A., & Surname, B. B. (Year, Month, Date). Title of webpage in italics. Title of website. URL


The World Bank Group. (2018). What we do. The World Bank.

To check out how to cite other online information sources, visit the Purdue OWL Electronic Sources section

A primary source can take various forms; it could be an image, a video or manuscript. For each form you need to follow different rules in order to cite it. Here is an example of a speech found in an edited collection of primary sources:

Stewart, M. W. (2003). An address at the African Masonic Hall, February 27, 1833. In J. Gottheimer (Ed.), Ripples of hope: Great American civil rights speeches (pp. 14–18). Basic Civitas Books.


Check out Purdue OWL Non-Print Sources to find out more.