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How to Cite in the Text?

There are two ways to cite in Chicago style:

  • Notes - bibliography: each time you cite a source, put a number in superscript beginning with 1 and continuing in numerical order. Then at the bottom of the page (footnote) or enf of the entire text (endnote) list your sources. At the end of the text create a bibliography
  • Author - date: use the surname of the author and publication data in the in-text citation and create a reference list at the end of the text

Note: here we give examples based on the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style. Check out Purdue OWL's website for help with the 17th edition.

How Should I Cite this?

In-text citation:

...according to Abdou1

Footnote:

1. Name Surname, Title in Italics (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), page number.

Example:

1. Ashraf Abdou, Arabic Idioms: A Corpus-based Study (Milton Park: Routledge, 2012), 19.
Bibliography in alphabetical order:

Surname, Name. Title in Italics. Place of publication: Publisher, Year.

Example:

Abdou, Ashraf. Arabic Idioms: A Corpus-based Study. Milton Park: Routledge, 2012.
In-text citation:

... according to Koven1

Endnote:

1. Name Surname, "Title of Article: Subtitle." Title of Journal in Italics volume, issue number no. (Year): page.

Example:

1. Suzanne Koven, "Mom at Bedside, Appears Calm." The New England Journal of Medicine 370, no. 2 (2014): 104.

Bibliography:

Surname, Name. "Title of Article: Subtitle." Title of Journal in Italics volume, issue number no. (Year): page range.

Example:

Koven, Suzanne. "Mom at Bedside, Appears Calm." The New England Journal of Medicine 370, no. 2 (2014): 104-105.

In-text citation:

found in UNESCO website1

Endnote:

1. Name Surname, “Title of Web Page,” Title of Website, Publishing Organization, publication or update date if available, access date if no other date available, URL.

Example:

1."UNESCO in Brief," UNESCO, accessed September 5, 2018, https://en.unesco.org/about-us/introducing-unesco

Bibliography:

Surname, Name. “Title of Web Page.” Title of Website. Publishing Organization, publication or update date if available. Access date if no other date available. URL.

Example:

"UNESCO in Brief." UNESCO. Accessed September 5, 2018. https://en.unesco.org/about-us/introducing-unesco

A primary source can take various forms, it could be an image, a video or manuscript. For each form you need to follow different rules in order to cite it. Check out Purdue OWL Chicago Style Guide to find out more.